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(Français) Béton & Ciment

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Little story of glue !

The glue was invented in ancient Egypt and has continued to evolve and improve, it is divided into different categories, they are three in number: the reactive adhesives, non-reactive adhesives, coatings and mortars.

The non-reactive adhesives when applied, are already present in their final chemical state. No chemical reaction thus occurs in the physical curing process is done by evaporation of solvent, water or by cooling. Non reactive sizes have a variety of adhesion properties, good flexibility and the bonding can be used in multiple applications.

There are four main types of physical curing adhesives: aqueous or solvent-based adhesives which harden by evaporation of water or solvent contact adhesives hot melt adhesives or “Hot Melt” the hotmelt self-adhesive or “HMPSA”. Reactive adhesives like the non-reactive sizes require a chemical reaction in order to pass from the liquid to the solid state.

Once cured, have generally a high resistance to temperature, moisture and many chemicals. The different types of chemical curing adhesives are: polyurethane adhesives mono and bi-component; adhesives based on epoxy resin mono and bi-component; cyanoacrylates; glues based silylated polymers; silicone adhesives. Plasters and mortars on them, they are formulated based plaster or cement for laying tiles or preparation of floors and walls before the establishment of a coating.

Wood : carpenter, cabinet-maker…

A material long used by men

Wood has always been favored for construction, furnishing, or for insulation or heating. Mulberry bark was used for paper by the Chinese. Also, wood always had an important place in art.

  • Construction :

Wood is an essential material in architecture, used in every type of construction from parquet floor to framework. Houses and buildings are always more or less made of wood, as well as pieces of furniture, boats, musical instruments...

Wood is used so much because it has many benefits : robust, insulating, durable, ecological thanks to sustainably managed forests, also pleasant to use. Moreso, some problem inherent to its use have now been counteracted : for instance, wood-eating organisms are now disposed of with specific products.

  • Cabinet :

The cabinetmaker and the carpenter don’t work the same way. The carpenter makes pieces of furniture or solid wood structures, while the cabinetmaker, after having built a wood structure, covers it with a thin layer of fine wood, called veneer. The cabinetmaker ths has to pay attention to the different natures and shapes of wood all throughout the process of creation.

  • Marquetry :

Marquetry is another wood art, it’s a decor the marquetry cabinetmaker builds from veneer, after a drawing, in order to give them a particular shape. He then assembles them, forming a whole that will be pasted on a support, like a painting or a piece of furniture.

That art developed especially during the Trecento in Italia, then was used a lot for Louis XIV and Louis XV style furniture.

The different types of wood

  •  Trees :

Based on the weather, different trees develop and generate different types of wood. With a temperate climate, we will have conifers such as pine, and fir, or hardwood such as aspen or birch. Some, like fruit trees, among others, are not grown for their wood, like cherry for example, but they can still be useful in cabinetmaking and marquetry.

  •  Types of wood specific to certain uses :

 The most common types of wood

 Oak is the traditional type of wood for framework, along with chestnut and spruce, for they don’t rot. Oak was also used a lot in naval construction.

Charm and maple are very useful for heating, because they produce more heat per cubic meter than most types.

Cabinetmaking types of wood

 Cherry is a light brown wood that can replace mahogany, and is used to make solid furniture in carpentry, as well as veneering.

Walnut is a low density, colorful and veined wood, favored for veneering.

Maple is a very light, almost white wood, and one of the most favored type for cabinetmakers.

Plane tree is a light, solid and moisture resistant type, although a bit dificult to use sometimes.

Fir is a light and quite solid wood, used for solid furniture, and also for parquet floors and stairs.

Exotic wood, such as mahogany, ebony, yew and lemon tree, is especially used in marquetry Read more…

Filaments for 3D Printing, the PLA

PLA-Impression3D_filament_imprimante-3D_L-Etablisienne-ParisPLA, polylactic acid, is a fully biodegradable polymer resulting from the fermentation of sugar or starch as a result of synthesizing lactic acid bacteria.

PLA is used in food packaging and in the manufacture of many injected, extruded or thermoformed articles.

The PLA is the material used by the 3D printer at l’Etablisienne.

You will find the description of the other “printable” materials on website 3ders.org

Natural fibers

 What’s a fiber ?

 A fiber is an organism that takes the form of filaments, and is the backbone of some vegetals. Many vegetal or animal fibers exist, and about 30 million tonnes of natural fibers are produced every year. They are used to make clothes and other textiles, and also i the industry for packaging. Natural fibers are produced in many underdeveloped countries, and that production is often the only income source for many farmers.

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Cork forming

Cork  is a natural material formed in the bark of some trees, especially cork oak. It allows the tree to protect itself from insects, cold and bad weather. The extraction of cork is done following a particular technique. First, the tree has to be at least 30 years old before the cork can be first extracted. Then, the cork produced is called virgin cork and the operation consisting in removing this cork is called stripping. However, the extracted cork has a very irregular structure and is therefore impossible to work. This type of cork can only be used as an insulation material.

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The invention of cardboard

After the invention of paper (papyrus) by the Ancient Egyptians, about 3000 years BC, cardboard was created in the U.S. by Albert L. Jones. This pharmacy technician had to send regularly glass vials, and he was looking for a way to keep them from breaking during the transport. He then had the idea of waving a sheet of paper between two other smooth sheets, creating a packaging more solid than simple paper. Cardboard then develops quite a lot during the Industrial Revolution. Halway through the nineteenth century, the English file a patent for a cardboard making machine, which will be used a lot even during the twentieth century, especially for packaging.

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From Antiquity to Medieval Ages

The most ancient traces of glass we know of come from Egypt in the fifth millenia BC. It is not glass as we know it nowadays, but rather glass paste used for jewels, like pearls, or dishes. Glass was then a very precious material, which was later used by Christians in order to ornament the vaults of churches. It was even before the creation and development of stained glass, in the twelfth century, thanks to abbé Suger. Tranluscent glass only appeared from the fourteenth century, and it was decided to replace stained glass by that type of glass in some churches. Then, glass was more and more used, and during the seventeenth century, the creation of the Galerie des Glaces, by Louis XIV, in the Château de Versailles, is a testimony to this will to show the power of the Kingdom of France.

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Metals and alloys

Metal is a very common material, for it allows many uses. Despite its hardness at room temperature, it is pliant enough when heated, and therefore is more easily transformed. Several types of metal exist, and it is common to mix several types to obtain what is called alloys. The types of metal chosen depend on the use intended.

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