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Little story of glue !
The glue was invented in ancient Egypt and has continued to evolve and improve, it is divided into different categories, they are three in number: the reactive adhesives, non-reactive adhesives, coatings and mortars.
The non-reactive adhesives when applied, are already present in their final chemical state. No chemical reaction thus occurs in the physical curing process is done by evaporation of solvent, water or by cooling. Non reactive sizes have a variety of adhesion properties, good flexibility and the bonding can be used in multiple applications.
There are four main types of physical curing adhesives: aqueous or solvent-based adhesives which harden by evaporation of water or solvent contact adhesives hot melt adhesives or “Hot Melt” the hotmelt self-adhesive or “HMPSA”. Reactive adhesives like the non-reactive sizes require a chemical reaction in order to pass from the liquid to the solid state.
Once cured, have generally a high resistance to temperature, moisture and many chemicals. The different types of chemical curing adhesives are: polyurethane adhesives mono and bi-component; adhesives based on epoxy resin mono and bi-component; cyanoacrylates; glues based silylated polymers; silicone adhesives. Plasters and mortars on them, they are formulated based plaster or cement for laying tiles or preparation of floors and walls before the establishment of a coating.
PLA is used in food packaging and in the manufacture of many injected, extruded or thermoformed articles.
The PLA is the material used by the 3D printer at l’Etablisienne.
You will find the description of the other “printable” materials on website 3ders.org
What’s a fiber ?
A fiber is an organism that takes the form of filaments, and is the backbone of some vegetals. Many vegetal or animal fibers exist, and about 30 million tonnes of natural fibers are produced every year. They are used to make clothes and other textiles, and also i the industry for packaging. Natural fibers are produced in many underdeveloped countries, and that production is often the only income source for many farmers.
Cork is a natural material formed in the bark of some trees, especially cork oak. It allows the tree to protect itself from insects, cold and bad weather. The extraction of cork is done following a particular technique. First, the tree has to be at least 30 years old before the cork can be first extracted. Then, the cork produced is called virgin cork and the operation consisting in removing this cork is called stripping. However, the extracted cork has a very irregular structure and is therefore impossible to work. This type of cork can only be used as an insulation material.
The invention of cardboard
After the invention of paper (papyrus) by the Ancient Egyptians, about 3000 years BC, cardboard was created in the U.S. by Albert L. Jones. This pharmacy technician had to send regularly glass vials, and he was looking for a way to keep them from breaking during the transport. He then had the idea of waving a sheet of paper between two other smooth sheets, creating a packaging more solid than simple paper. Cardboard then develops quite a lot during the Industrial Revolution. Halway through the nineteenth century, the English file a patent for a cardboard making machine, which will be used a lot even during the twentieth century, especially for packaging.
From Antiquity to Medieval Ages
The most ancient traces of glass we know of come from Egypt in the fifth millenia BC. It is not glass as we know it nowadays, but rather glass paste used for jewels, like pearls, or dishes. Glass was then a very precious material, which was later used by Christians in order to ornament the vaults of churches. It was even before the creation and development of stained glass, in the twelfth century, thanks to abbé Suger. Tranluscent glass only appeared from the fourteenth century, and it was decided to replace stained glass by that type of glass in some churches. Then, glass was more and more used, and during the seventeenth century, the creation of the Galerie des Glaces, by Louis XIV, in the Château de Versailles, is a testimony to this will to show the power of the Kingdom of France.